13 Feb 19:
"During 1912 Naval Constructor Richardson conducted a series of model basin tests on the planing properties of seaplane floats and hulls which have proved to be perhaps the most important and fruitful research ever undertaken by the Navy. Richardson for the first time showed the effect of the form of the float on its water performance, and from these tests he evolved the lines of United States Navy seaplane floats and hulls which have since that date made them a standard for others to follow. Richardson's tests showed the advantages of Vee bottom, long easy form, spray strips, and single step with sharp rise of after body."
-A History of Naval Aviation https://www.history.navy.mil/content/dam/nhhc/research/histories/naval-aviation/pdf/History%20(1).pdf
Log of NC-4 Flying Boat